Meteorologia spaziale

Velocità del vento solare Vento solare dei campi magnetici Apice radioflusso a 10.7 cm
Bt Bz

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ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jun 18, 2018 2.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 18 0256 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jun 18, 2018 2.20 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 18 0220 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 18 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jun 18, 2018 1.59 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 18 0159 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 18, 2018 1.26 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 18 0126 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 18 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 13, 2018 18.45 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2801
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1198 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 12, 2018 17.22 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2800
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1843 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 11, 2018 15.02 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2799
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1711 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 10, 2018 15.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2798
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1940 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 9, 2018 14.05 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2797
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2091 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 8, 2018 15.31 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2796
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2718 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 7, 2018 14.33 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2795
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 19491 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emesso: Jun 6, 2018 21.07 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 06 2059 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 6, 2018 19.44 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 06 1945 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 06 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 6, 2018 8.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2794
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 17617 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 5, 2018 9.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2793
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 22020 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 4, 2018 8.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2792
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 26890 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 3, 2018 8.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2791
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 28660 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 3, 2018 2.27 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3489
Valid From: 2018 May 31 1720 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 03 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 2, 2018 17.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3488
Valid From: 2018 May 31 1720 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 03 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 2, 2018 9.11 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2790
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4501 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 2, 2018 5.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3487
Valid From: 2018 May 31 1720 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 02 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jun 2, 2018 5.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1476
Valid From: 2018 Jun 01 0520 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 02 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 23.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1475
Valid From: 2018 Jun 01 0520 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 02 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 23.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3486
Valid From: 2018 May 31 1720 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 02 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 16.21 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 01 1610 UTC
Station: GOES15


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 13.31 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 01 1329 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 13.31 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1474
Valid From: 2018 Jun 01 0520 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 01 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 13.31 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3485
Valid From: 2018 May 31 1720 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 01 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 5.21 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 01 0520 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 01 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 1, 2018 5.21 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3484
Valid From: 2018 May 31 1720 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 01 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emesso: May 31, 2018 17.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 May 31 1735 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: May 31, 2018 17.22 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 May 31 1720 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 01 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Emesso: May 30, 2018 18.34 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
May 31: None (Below G1) Jun 01: G1 (Minor) Jun 02: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Emesso: May 29, 2018 18.50 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
May 30: None (Below G1) May 31: None (Below G1) Jun 01: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: May 23, 2018 7.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 May 23 0740 UTC
Valid To: 2018 May 23 1100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Tabella

Data Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Numero di macchie solari Zona macchie solari 10E-6 Nuove regioni GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Brillamenti
X-ray Ottica
C M X S 1 2 3
May 19, 2018 70 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 20, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 21, 2018 70 12 20 1 A1.0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
May 22, 2018 71 12 20 0 A2.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 23, 2018 73 30 50 1 A5.1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 24, 2018 74 39 140 1 A4.4 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
May 25, 2018 76 32 80 0 A5.3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
May 26, 2018 73 26 70 0 A4.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 27, 2018 75 27 50 0 A4.1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
May 28, 2018 77 20 80 0 A4.8 1 0 0 7 0 0 0
May 29, 2018 75 22 70 0 A4.1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
May 30, 2018 75 18 30 0 A3.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 31, 2018 77 21 50 0 A6.0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Jun 1, 2018 75 22 60 0 A6.7 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jun 2, 2018 74 20 30 0 A5.0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jun 3, 2018 74 16 10 0 A4.4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jun 4, 2018 71 11 10 0 A4.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 5, 2018 71 0 0 0 A4.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 6, 2018 71 0 0 0 A2.8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 7, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 8, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 9, 2018 67 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 10, 2018 70 0 0 0 A1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 11, 2018 70 0 0 0 A2.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 12, 2018 70 12 10 1 A2.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 13, 2018 71 16 60 0 A3.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 14, 2018 72 16 30 0 A2.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 15, 2018 71 13 10 0 A2.5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jun 16, 2018 71 13 10 0 A2.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 17, 2018 71 15 20 0 A2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Media/Totale 72 14 30 4 3 0 0 23 0 0 0

Grafico riassuntivo

Brillamenti

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

Indici K



Oggi


0h
UTC
3h
UTC
6h
UTC
9h
UTC
12h
UTC
15h
UTC
18h
UTC
21h
UTC
5 4 4 4 3 2



Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Data A Indici K (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
May 20, 2018 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 0
May 21, 2018 3 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1
May 22, 2018 5 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
May 23, 2018 9 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 2
May 24, 2018 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
May 25, 2018 3 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 0
May 26, 2018 4 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 2
May 27, 2018 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
May 28, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
May 29, 2018 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
May 30, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
May 31, 2018 12 2 2 1 2 2 4 4 3
Jun 1, 2018 26 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 3
Jun 2, 2018 17 3 4 3 2 3 2 4 4
Jun 3, 2018 9 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 2
Jun 4, 2018 5 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
Jun 5, 2018 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
Jun 6, 2018 7 1 1 0 1 1 2 4 2
Jun 7, 2018 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2
Jun 8, 2018 4 1 2 1 2 2 0 0 0
Jun 9, 2018 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
Jun 10, 2018 4 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 1
Jun 11, 2018 4 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 2
Jun 12, 2018 4 2 2 1 0 1 0 1 1
Jun 13, 2018 5 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
Jun 14, 2018 5 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
Jun 15, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Jun 16, 2018 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
Jun 17, 2018 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
Jun 18, 2018 19 5 4 4 4 3 2

Middle Latitude

Data A Indici K
May 20, 2018 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 0
May 21, 2018 3 0 1 0 2 1 1 1 1
May 22, 2018 6 0 1 3 1 1 2 2 2
May 23, 2018 10 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 2
May 24, 2018 5 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
May 25, 2018 4 1 0 0 1 2 1 3 0
May 26, 2018 5 0 1 1 1 3 1 2 2
May 27, 2018 5 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1
May 28, 2018 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
May 29, 2018 5 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1
May 30, 2018 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
May 31, 2018 11 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 3
Jun 1, 2018 19 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 2
Jun 2, 2018 14 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3
Jun 3, 2018 9 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 2
Jun 4, 2018 5 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
Jun 5, 2018 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1
Jun 6, 2018 9 1 2 0 2 2 3 4 2
Jun 7, 2018 6 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
Jun 8, 2018 5 1 3 1 2 2 1 0 0
Jun 9, 2018 5 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
Jun 10, 2018 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 0
Jun 11, 2018 4 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 2
Jun 12, 2018 5 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1
Jun 13, 2018 7 0 2 1 2 2 2 2 3
Jun 14, 2018 7 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
Jun 15, 2018 6 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 1
Jun 16, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
Jun 17, 2018 7 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 2
Jun 18, 2018 5 4 4 4 2 3

High Latitude

Data A Indici K
May 20, 2018 2 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0
May 21, 2018 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0
May 22, 2018 6 0 1 4 1 1 1 2 1
May 23, 2018 18 2 3 4 5 4 3 0 1
May 24, 2018 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
May 25, 2018 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
May 26, 2018 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
May 27, 2018 5 2 2 0 3 2 0 1 1
May 28, 2018 2 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0
May 29, 2018 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0
May 30, 2018 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 1
May 31, 2018 9 2 2 0 3 1 3 3 2
Jun 1, 2018 46 3 5 6 5 6 6 2 2
Jun 2, 2018 25 3 4 4 5 5 2 3 3
Jun 3, 2018 15 3 2 1 5 4 2 2 2
Jun 4, 2018 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 0
Jun 5, 2018 7 2 2 1 3 3 1 1 1
Jun 6, 2018 5 1 1 0 0 2 2 3 1
Jun 7, 2018 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0
Jun 8, 2018 6 2 2 0 3 3 0 0 0
Jun 9, 2018 3 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 0
Jun 10, 2018 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 11, 2018 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Jun 12, 2018 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
Jun 13, 2018 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 14, 2018 3 2 1 1 1 2 0 0 1
Jun 15, 2018 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Jun 16, 2018 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 17, 2018 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
Jun 18, 2018 4 3 5 6 6 2

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The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Origine dati: NOAA, Wikipedia

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